Typical pesticide exposure levels in Europe and tropical countries

Año Publicación:  2013
Responsable: C. Richard Glass et al.
Journal, Volumen y páginas:
Ecosystem Services 46, 101204


C. Richard Glass & F. J. Egea


Exposure to pesticides as Plant Protection Products (PPP) occurs via several routes and from various sources. In general occupational exposure is greatest for the operator, particularly during the handling of the concentrated product during mixing and loading. The exposure during the application tends to be lower and principally via the dermal route rather than via inhalation and less than for workers entering treated areas following application. The importance of the dermal route causes problems for the use of mitigation measures such as protective clothing in warm climates and in protected cropping due to health problems related heat stress. European Union policy has evolved with Regulation 1107/2009 and the Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC) to reduce the impact of PPP. Training and awareness remain critical in reducing exposure, although with small scale farmers in both developing and developed counties, difficulties reaching large numbers of operators in rural areas, literacy levels and language problems with migrant workforces cause problems. Data for true exposures to pesticides are generally scarce with biomonitoiring studies measuring metabolites and parent compounds in urine or blood, however without detailed pharamacokinetic data it is not possible to relate this to the amount of dermal exposure or the absorbed dose. Indicative levels of exposure to a range of PPP have been reported for the general population and operators applying PPP in greenhouses or tropical countries. Kavvalakis and Tsatsakis (2012) reported urinarydialkylphosphates levels of 18 to 830 ppb for the general population and 29 to 1370 ppb for the occupationally exposed population.

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