Evolutionary history of fumitories (subfamily Fumarioideae, Papaveraceae): An old story shaped by the main geological and climatic events in the Northern Hemisphere.

Año Publicación:  2015
Responsable: M. A. Pérez-Gutiérrez et al.
Journal, Volumen y páginas:
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 88, pp. 75-92


M. A. Pérez-Gutiérrez, A. Romero, M. C. Fernández, G. Blanca, M. J. Salinas-Bonillo & V. Suárez-Santiago


Fumitories (subfamily Fumarioideae, Papaveraceae) represent, by their wide mainly northern temperate distribution (also present in South Africa) a suitable plant group to use as a model system for studying biogeographical links between floristic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and also the Southern Hemisphere Cape region. However, the phylogeny of the entire Fumarioideae subfamily is not totally known. In this work, we infer a molecular phylogeny of Fumarioideae, which we use to interpret the biogeographical patterns in the subfamily and to establish biogeographical links between floristic regions, such as those suggested by its different inter- and intra-continental disjunctions. The tribe Hypecoeae is the sister group of tribe Fumarieae, this latter holding a basal grade of monotypic or few-species genera with bisymmetric flowers, and a core group, Core Fumarieae, of more specious rich genera with zygomorphic flowers. The biogeographical analysis shows a subfamily that originated in East Asia at the end of the Early Cretaceous. From here, ancestral range expansions followed three different directions, one at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous by the ancestor of tribe Hypecoeae towards central Asia, and two during the Cretaceous–Palaeogene transition towards western North America and Indochina by the ancestor of the tribe Fumarieae. The ancestor of Core Fumarieae expanded its range from East Asia into the Himalayas before to the middle Eocene. The uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau together with the zonal climate pattern of the Palaeogene are suggested to be responsible both for the accelerated diversification rate resulting in the origin of the basal lineages of Core Fumarieae as well as for the westward migration of the ancestor of Fumarieae s.str. into the Irano-Turanian region. From here, this latter group reached South Africa during late Eocene and Mediterranean basin during Oligocene. There were two colonization waves of the Mediterranean following two different routes: a northern route during the early Oligocene by the subtribe Sarcocapninae, probably facilitated by the land bridge resulting of the Mediterranean microplate accretion; and a southern route into North Africa, through the Gomphotherium land bridge, taken by the subtribe Fumariinae between late Oligocene and middle Miocene.

Keywords: Ancestral-area reconstruction, Biogeography, Fumarioideae, Molecular dating, Papaveraceae, Phylogeny

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