The objective of this work is to present new meteorological data from southern Spain corresponding to the period 1785–1830. Data sources are early newspapers and medical studies interested in the influence of environment conditions on health and illness. Data correspond to five cities in the area (Cádiz, Seville, Málaga, Granada, and Cartagena). Around 16,000 new meteorological observations (temperature, pressure, number of rainy days, wind direction, and qualitative statements on rainfall, wind force, cloudiness, fog, and storms) were recorded. Database obtained is a set of scattered meteorological series, with short periods of observation, fragmented and with no homogeneous characteristics. However, these data may offer an overview on the climatic conditions in the area during the studied period, as well as interesting information on extreme events, as for instance floods in the 1780s decade, and the so-called “year without summer” 1816.