Fernando Gázquez Sánchez

Postdoctoral Researcher - Water Resources & Environmental Geology

Fernando Gázquez Sánchez

I studied Environmental Sciences at the University of Almeria and I have a PhD in Environmental Sciences from the University of Almeria. I have been FPU fellow (2008-2012) at the University of Almeria and postdoctoral fellow at the universities of Valladolid (2013-2014), Cambridge (UK, 2014-2017), St. Andrews (UK, 2017-2018) and Hipatia fellow at the University of Almeria (2018-2020). Since 2020 I am a Ramón y Cajal contract holder of the Ministry of Science and Innovation. I teach in the degrees of Environmental Sciences, Chemistry and Agricultural Engineering, as well as in the masters of Sustainable Uses of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services and Teaching.


My research focuses on the study of minerals from caves and lakes to reconstruct the climate of the past. To do so, I use geochemical tools, such as stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen. I also participate in studies on caves as Martian analogues and I am part of the team of researchers studying the formation processes of the Giant Geode of Pulpí.

RESEARCH GROUP: Water Resources and Environmental Geology (RNM-189)


  • Paleoclimatology
  • Lakes
  • Caves
  • Stable isotopes
  • Gypsum


European Space Agency's Topical Cave Planetary Team


PALEOQUANT excellence project of the Junta de Andalucía (Andalusian Regional Government) (https://sites.google.com/view/paleoquant-site/home)


Climatic control on the Holocene hydrology of a playa-lake system in the western Mediterranean The Absolute Age and Origin of the Giant Gypsum Geode of Pulpí (Almería, SE Spain) The role of cave ventilation in the triple oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of condensation waters in Altamira Cave, northern Spain Organic geochemistry and mineralogy suggest anthropogenic impact in speleothem chemistry from volcanic show caves of the Galapagos Squandering water in drylands: The water use strategy of the phreatophyte Ziziphus lotus in a groundwater dependent ecosystem Hypogenic speleogenesis, late stage epigenic overprinting and condensation-corrosion in a complex cave system in relation to landscape evolution (Toirano, Liguria, Italy) Underlying Climate Controls in Triple Oxygen (16O, 17O, 18O) and Hydrogen (1H, 2H) Isotopes Composition of Rainfall (Central Pyrenees) Archaeological and environmental cave records in the Gobi-Altai
Mountains, Mongolia
Bubble trail and folia in cenote Zapote, México: Petrographic evidence for abiotic precipitation driven by CO2 degassing below the water table Colored microbial coatings in show caves from the galapagos islands (Ecuador): First microbiological approach The potential of gypsum speleothems for paleoclimatology: application to the iberian Roman Humid period Pacific climate reflected in Waipuna Cave drip water hydrochemistry Equipos para la medición de la calidad del aire y el clima en cavidades para espeleólogos Resultados preliminares de la monitorización termo-gaseosa en Cueva del Agua, Cartagena A long record of MIS 7 and MIS 5 climate and environment from a western Mediterranean speleothem (SW Sardinia, Italy) Insights into the speleogenesis of Ejulve cave (Iberian Range, NE Spain): quaternary hydrothermal arstification? Physical weathering of carbonate host-rock by precipitation of soluble salts in caves: A case study in El Orón-Arco Cave (Region of Murcia, SE Spain) Natural Analogue Constraints on Europa's Non‐ice Surface Material Online Differential Thermal Isotope Analysis of Hydration Water in Minerals by Cavity Ringdown Laser Spectroscopy Prediction of Equilibrium Isotopic Fractionation of the Gypsum/Bassanite/Water System using First-Principles Calculations Ballasting by cryogenic gypsum enhances carbon export in a Phaeocystis under-ice bloom Quantification of drought during the collapse of the classic Maya civilization Extremely high diversity of sulfate minerals in caves of the Irazú volcano (Costa Rica) related to crater lake and fumarolic activity Quantification of paleo-aquifer changes using clumped isotopes in subaqueous carbonate speleothems Coupled Mg/Ca and clumped isotope analyses of foraminifera provide consistent water temperatures Intensified summer monsoon and the urbanization of Indus Civilization in northwest India Triple oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of gypsum hydration water for quantitative paleo-humidity reconstruction Precise and accurate isotope fractionation factors (α17O, α18O and αD) for water and CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum) Gypsum speleogenesis: A hydrogeological classification of gypsum caves Using stable isotopes (δ17O, δ18O and δD) of gypsum hydration water to ascertain the role of water condensation in the formation of subaerial gypsum speleothems Isotopic and hydrochemistry spatial variation of sulfate for groundwater characterization in karstic aquifers Bat urea-derived minerals in arid environment. First identification of allantoin, C4H6N4O3, in Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates In situ Raman characterization of minerals and degradation processes in a variety of cultural and geological heritage sites Spatiotemporal distribution of δ13CCO2 in a shallow cave and its potential use as indicator of anthropic pressure Isotopic analysis of sulfur cycling and gypsum vein formation in a natural CO2 reservoir The Caves of Naica: A decade of research Flash flood events recorded by air temperature changes in caves: A case study in Covadura Cave (SE Spain) De dónde viene el agua del Manantial de Los Molinos? Calculating the maximum visitability in tourist caves by CAVIX method: El Soplao (Cantabria, Spain) - Cálculo de la visitabilidad máxima en cavidades turísticas mediante el método CAVIX: El Soplao (Cantabria, España) Linking groundwater pollution to the decay of 15th-century sculptures in Burgos Cathedral (northern Spain) Coupled measurements of δ18O and δD of hydration water and salinity of fluid inclusions in gypsum from the Messinian Yesares Member, Sorbas Basin (SE Spain) Simultaneous analysis of 17O/16O, 18O/16O and 2H/1H of gypsum hydration water by cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy Hypogene Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis and rare sulfate minerals in Baume Galinière Cave (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France). Record of uplift, correlative cover retreat and valley dissection The role of condensation in the evolution of dissolutional forms in gypsum caves: Study case in the karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) Spectroscopic Raman study of sulphate precipitation sequence in Rio Tinto mining district (SW Spain) Caracterización mineralógica y geoquímica de minerales hidratados de ambientes subterráneos: implicaciones para la exploración planetaria Paleoflood events recorded by speleothems in caves Corrosion of calcite crystals by metal-rich mud in caves: Study case in Crovassa Ricchi in Argento Cave (SW Sardinia, Italy). Isotope and trace element evolution of the Naica aquifer (Chihuahua, Mexico) over the past 60,000yr revealed by speleothems Origin of double-tower raft cones in hypogenic caves Boxwork and ferromanganese coatings in hypogenic caves: An example from Sima de la Higuera Cave (Murcia, SE Spain) Gypsum-carbonate speleothems from Cueva de las Espadas (Naica mine, Mexico): Mineralogy and palaeohydrogeological implications Organic matter of fossil origin in the amberine speleothems from El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Northern Spain) Palaeoclimatic record from hypogenic gypsum speleothems of the Naica caves (Chihuahua, México) Relaciones isotópicas de estroncio (87Sr/86Sr) en espeleotemas yesíferos de las cuevas de Naica (Chihuahua, México): Implicaciones genéticas A geomorphological and speleological approach in the study of hydrogeology of gypsum karst of Sorbas (SE Spain) Black Mn-Fe crusts as markers of abrupt palaeoenvironmental changes in El Soplao Cave (Cantabria, Spain) Espeleotemas de yeso: ¿Un nuevo proxy paleoclimático? Gypsum speleothems: a new palaeoclimatic proxy?
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